Rural Pacification in Vietnam: 1962-1965


TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACEiii
CHAPTER
I.INTRODUCTION1
 
PART I
THE NATURE AND SOURCE OF INSURGENCY
IN VIETNAM: A BRIEF SURVEY
 
II.THE CONTEXT OF THE CONFLICT: AND INTERPRETIVE SURVEY5
Geography and Demography5
Vietnamese Rural Society9
The Role of Foreign Penetration15
South Vietnam After Geneva19
The Regime of Ngo Dinh Diem: Controlled Revolution19
After Ngo Dinh Diem: The Uncontrolled Revolution24
III.THE RURAL STRATEGY OF THE VIET-CONG27
Historic and Organic Continuity27
The General Strategy in South Vietnam29
Propaganda and Program Themes31
Viet-Cong Pacification: Destruction of the Government Presence33
Viet-Cong Pacification: Substitution by the Insurgent Government36
Communist Highlander Programs40
Trends in Viet-Cong Pacification41
 
PART II
THE COUNTERINSURGENT RESPONSE
 
IV.EARLY APPROACHES TO PACIFICATION46
The Irrepressible Conflict46
Civic Action and the Former Viet-Minh Areas48
Land Reform and Land Development51
Nation-building Via Political Mechanisms54
Military and Civil Defense Policies58
Relocation of Population65
Summary of Early Efforts.67
V.NATIONAL PACIFICATION STRATEGIES 1962-196570
The Growing American Involvement70
Sources of the Strategic Hamlet Concept72
The Philosophy of the Strategic Hamlet Program: 'Total Revolution'74
Ngo Dinh Nhu's Personalist Revolution74
An American Concept of Strategic Hamlets78
The Evolution of Pacification Programs: 1962-196582
The Strategic Hamlets (Ap Chien-Luoc) 1962-196582
The New Life Hamlets (Ap Tan Sinh) 1964-196586
Rural Construction: 196687
Ancillary Pacification Programs90
Civilian Irregular Defense Groups90
Force Populaire (Luc Luong Nhan-Dan)91
Summary Comment94
 
PART III
PROVINCE PACIFICATION: 1962-1965
 
VI.THE PROVINCIAL PACIFICATION SYSTEM98
Provincial Political and Administrative Context.98
Vietnamese Pacification Organization104
United States Provincial Organization109
The MACV Sector Team109
USOM Provincial Staff112
Other United States Agencies114
A New Experiment: The United States Team Captain116
Vietnamese-United States Organization116
VII.PACIFICATION OPERATIONS120
Geographical Emphases and Criteria for Selection120
Anatomy of a Province Campaign: Quang Nam123
Strategic Hamlets: The "Self-sufficient Phase" (Ap Tu Tuc)124
The Special An Hoa-Nong Son Campaign126
The Province-wide Strategic Hamlet Campaign131
Post-Coup Pacification Efforts138
Rural Restoration139
Local Economic and Social Programs139
Information Programs144
United States Combat Forces: Pacification in the Danang Special Sector150
Summary Evaluation of Pacification in Quang Nam152
Special Pacification Operations154
Long An Province154
Hop Tac: A Regional Pacification Program156
An Giong Province: Variable Response in Pacification158
Pacification Cadres161
Previous Types of Cadres in Pacification161
The 1966 Rural Construction Cadre Teams164
VIII.THE RURAL SECURITY SYSTEM168
The Hamlet Defense Apparatus: The Self- Defense Role169
Popular Forces and Regional Forces177
Intelligence Systems179
The Police and Resources Control181
Regular Forces and Civil Relations188
Summary Comment191
IX.POLITICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS193
The Political Strategy: The Fulfillment of the Vietnamese National Revolution193
Pacification and the Administration of Justice196
Training for Local Officials197
Propaganda and Information Media and Programs199
The "Open Arms" Amnesty Program (Chieu Hoi)207
Rewards for Captures of Viet-Cong Leaders209
The Role of JUSPAO in Province Operations210
Summary Evaluation212
X.SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRAMS214
Self-Help Projects216
Training Centers224
Public Works Projects225
Education Programs228
Health Programs231
Relief and Refugees234
The Economic Emphasis: Agriculture Programs238
Other Rural Economic Projects245
Summary Evaluation247
 
PART IV
NATIONAL PACIFICATION SYSTEM
 
XI.THE NATIONAL PACIFICATION SYSTEM249
Pacification Organization Within the Republic of Vietnam249
The United States Mission252
Bi-national Coordination255
Free World Assistance258
XII.INTRA-AGENCY PACIFICATION STRUCTURES: USOM AND MACV259
The Evolution of the USOM Apparatus259
The Office of Rural Affairs259
Personnel Selection for Provincial Operations265
Technical Divisions268
Possible Effects of the USOM Staff Increase269
The Development of MACV270
The Sector Advisory Role270
The Office of Sector Affairs273
American Combat Forces275
XIII.EVALUATION OF PACIFICATION278
Inspection and Field Evaluation278
Criteria for Local Security Evaluation281
A Summary Critique of Vietnamese Pacification Efforts285
Objectives in Pacification286
The Pacification Apparatus288
Planning and Scheduling293
Operations296
The American Role in Pacification297
USOM Provincial Operations299
Conclusion302
XIV.A PACIFICATION THEORY FOR VIETNAM304
The Central Pacification Objective: A Revolution in the Life of the Peasant305
Rehabilitating the Governmental Apparatus308
Provincial Pacification Administration314
A Variable Province Strategy315
XV.A MODEL FOR PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION319
The Methodology of Network and Critical Path Concepts320
Pacification Operations and the Implementation Model326
XVI.CONCLUSION331
BIBLIOGRAPHY334
 
APPENDICES347
A.Province Government Organization, Quang Nam348
B.Release Agreement for 1964, Quang Nam349
C.Release Agreement for 1966, Quang Nam354
D.Cadre Training Schedule, Quang Nam357
E.Village and Hamlet Leader Training, Quang Nam358
F.Multi-purpose Authorization Form, Quang Nam361
G.Warehouse Classification System, Quang Nam362
H.Warehouse Inventory Card, Quang Nam363
I.Program Work Plan Form, Quang Nam364
J.Transportation Log, Quang Nam365
K.Selections,Vinh Binh Province Self-Help Chart366
L.USOM Summary of Counterinsurgency Projects,1965371
M.National Rural Construction Program, 1966375
N.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, 1963388
O.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, 1964389
P.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, January, 1965390
Q.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, May, 1965391
R.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, December, 1965392
S.USOM/Vietnam Organization Chart, February, 1966393
 
GLOSSARY394
 
LIST OF FIGURES
 
1.Map of Ethnic Groups8
2.Viet-Cong Regular Forces and Terror Activity30
3.Comparative Statistics on "Constructed" v "Completed" Hamlets84
4.Allied Armed Forces and American Advisors in South Vietnam88
5.Republic of Vietnam: Provincial Organization102
6.New Life Hamlet Bureau, Quang Nam Province, 1964107
7.Provincial Sector Advisory Team110
8.USOM Provincial Staff, Quang Tri Province115
9.Political Map of South Vietnam121
10.Map of Quang Nam Province, with District and Village Boundaries125
11.Quang Nam Pacification Programs in 1964143
12.Rural Construction Team Organization February, 1966165
13.Family Census Booklet184
14.Family Census Booklet (reverse)185
15.Sample of 1961 type Identification Card186
16.USOM Self-Help Programs219
17.Self-Help Status Report, Vinh Binh Province220
18.USOM Staff Control Card for Self-Help Projects221
19.Map and Statistics of the Refugee Problem236
20.Map of 1964 Fertilizer Program241
21.United States Mission Vietnam253
22.Joint United States Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO).254
23.USAID Vietnam266
24.Map of Vietnam Showing Location of Field-based USOM Employees267
25.United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam272
26.Sample Work Breakdown Structure: Hamlet Pacification Plan322
27.Sample Implementation Network: Hamlet School Construction323
28.Sample Implementation Network: Hamlet Security System329