A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam
Volume IV
US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD
iii
PREFACE
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
xvii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
EX-1 to EX-9

1. SUPPORT FOR THE WAR
Page
A. Introduction
1-1
B. Historical Context for Assessing Public Support for Vietnam War Policies
1-5
1. World War II
1-5
2. Korean War
1-7
C. Public Support for the Vietnam War Policies
1-11
D. Trends in Support of and Opposition to the Vietnam War Among Subgroups of the US Population
1-15
1. Youth
1-16
2. Intellectuals
1-19
3. Blacks
1-21
4. Labor
1-22
E. Analytical Summary - Insights
1-23
F. Lessons
1-25

2. CHANGING SOCIETY
A. Introduction
2-1
B. Social Change in Post-World War II America
2-2
C. The Vietnam War and American Society
2-6
1. Blacks
2-6
2. Youth
2-9
3. Intellectuals
2-15
4. Labor
2-19
D. Assessment of the Antiwar Movement
2-23
E. The Military in American Society
2-29
1. The Traditional Relationship
2-30
2. World War I
2-31
3. World War II
2-33
4. Korea
2-34
5. The Impact of Vietnam
2-34
F. Insights
2-35
G. Lessons
2-36

3. THE MEDIA AND THE VIETNAM WAR
A. Introduction
3-1
B. Changing Media in a Changing Society
3-3
1. Technological Changes
3-3
2. The Media as a Business/Corporate Concentration
3-5
3. News Presentation
3-7
C. Government-Media Relations
3-8
1. Kennedy Administration Media Relations
3-9
2. The Johnson Administration
3-13
3. Nixon Administration Media Relations
3-18
D. Impact of Media Coverage on the War
3-22
E. he Question of Censorship
3-26
F. The Media and the Military Services
3-27
G. Analytical Summary and Insights
3-29
H. Lessons
3-32

4. US ECONOMY AND THE VIETNAM WAR
A. Introduction
4-1
B. The US Economy Prior to 1961
4-3
1. An Overview
4-3
2. Anti-Inflation Policies During World War II and the Korean War
4-7
C. The Kennedy Years
4-9
1. The Development of Tax-Cut Legislation, 1962-64
4-9
2. Kennedy's Economic Program and US Involvement in Vietnam
4-11
D. Johnson Administration Economic Policies and the Vietnam War
4-14
1. Escalation in Vietnam: Guns, Butter, and Inflation
4-14
2. The Decline of the US International Economic Position
4-17
E. Nixon Administration Economic Policies and the Vietnam War
4-23
1. An Overview, 1968-1972
4-23
2. Nixon's Economic Program and US Withdrawal from Vietnam
4-27
F. Insights
4-27
G. Lessons
4-30

5. DOMESTIC POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING VIETNAM WAR DECISION MAKING
A. Introduction
5-1
B. Presidential Politics
5-2
1. The Kennedy Administration
5-2
2. The Johnson Administration
5-5
3. The Nixon Administration
5-11
4. The Ford Administration
5-14
C. Congress in Foreign Policy Decision Making
5-16
1. Introduction
5-16
2. Bipartisan Foreign Policy and Isolation of Congress
5-16
3. Congress, the President, and the Vietnam War
5-18
4. An Era of Congressional Restriction of the Presidency
5-21
D. Authority for War
5-22
1. Introduction
5-22
2. Review of Precedents for Broadening Presidential War-Making Powers
5-24
3. Presidential Authority for War - The Case of Vietnam
5-27
4. Precedents and Authority for War
5-30
E. Summary Analysis and Insights
5-32
F. Lessons
5-36
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BB-1 to BB-21

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