A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam
Volume V
Planning the War

TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD
iii
PREFACE
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
xix
LIST OF MAPS
xxiii
LIST OF TABLES
xxiii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
EX-1 to EX-16

1. OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
Page
A. Introduction
1-1
B. A Review of DRV, NLF (PRP & PRG), USSR, and PRC Objectives and Strategies
1-2
1. The Objectives and Strategies of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) in Review
1-2
2. The Objectives and Strategies of the National Liberation Front in Review
1-3
3. Objectives and Strategies of the Soviet Union in Review
1-6
4. Objectives and Strategies of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Review
1-7
C. A Review Of US, GVN, and Allied Objectives and Strategies
1-9
1. The Objectives and Strategies of the United States (US) and South Vietnam in Review
1-9
2. The Objectives and Strategies of Major Allied Participants in Review
1-13
D. An Assessment of US-Allied and Enemy Strategies and Objectives: Problems, Exploitable Differences, Contradictions, and Misperceptions
1-15
E. Insights
1-21
F. Lessons
1-22

2. US FOREIGN POLICY
A. Introduction
2-1
B. Phased Assessment of US Foreign Policy in Southeast Asia
2-4
1. Historical Antecedents
2-4
2. Phase 1: 1945 to 1961
2-4
3. Phase 2: 1961 to 1965
2-21
4. Phase 3: 1965 to 1969
2-38
5. Phase 4: 1969 to 1975
2-43
C. Insights
2-47
D. Lessons
2-49

3. CONTINGENCY PLANNING
A. Introduction
3-1
B. Peacetime Perspectives
3-2
1. Military Strategic Planning
3-2
2. Objectives
3-3
3. Planning Highlights
3-5
4. CINCPAC OPLAN 32-59
3-7
5. Related Plans
3-10
6. Constraints on Planning Options
3-10
C. Plans Actually Implemented
3-13
1. OPLANs 34A and 37-64
3-13
2. Changing Perceptions
3-14
3. No Reserve Call-up
3-15
4. Planning Deployment in SVN
3-15
5. Other Factors
3-17
6. MACV Contingency Planning Post 1965
3-17
D. Assessment of Planning Effectiveness
3-18
E. Summary Analysis and Insights
3-19
F. Lessons
3-21

4. MOBILIZATION
A. Introduction
4-1
B. Mobilization: of the Reserves: A Difficult Presidential Decision
4-2
1. Background
4-2
2. Mobilization: The Backbone of Early Contingency Planning (1954-1961)
4-5
3. The Bay of Pigs Fiasco and the Berlin Crisis: Reason to Mobilize
4-6
4. Other Crisis Situations (1962-1965)
4-9
5. The US Military Commitment to Vietnam: 1965 to 1968
4-10
6. Mini-Mobilization: The Pueblo Incident and Tet 1968
4-15
7. Vietnamization and Withdrawal: 1969-1972
4-24
8. Post-War Impacts: Down to a Zero Draft
4-26
9. A Lesson Learned
4-30
C. Summary Analysis and Insights
4-31
D. Lessons
4-32

5. PACIFICATION AND VIETNAMIZATION
A. Introduction
5-1
B. Pacification: A Key Variable in the Counterinsurgency Formula
5-2
1. Early Pacification Efforts
5-2
2. The Process Defined
5-4
C. Early Pacification Efforts: The Ngo Experiments (1954-1963)
5-6
1. Civic Action
5-7
2. The Land Development Program
5-9
3. Agglomeration Camps and Agrovilles
5-12
4. Strategic Hamlets
5-17
5. The Civilians' Irregular Defense Groups (CIDG) Experiment
5-26
6. The Territorial Forces -- Civil Guard and Self-Defense Corps
5-28
7. Early Program Results and Impact on the War Effort
5-30
D. Follow-On Pacification: The US Search for a New Strategy (1964-1967)
5-33
1. New Life Hamlets and the Hop Tac Effort - The US Takes Charge
5-33
2. Rural Construction: A Push for a Social Revolution
5-40
3. Revolutionary Development: Emphasis on the Other War
5-43
4. US Participation: Looking for the Right Organization
5-45
5. The American Solutions: A Proliferation of Approaches
5-46
6. Program Results and Impact on the War Effort
5-47
E. The New Model Pacification Program: Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (1967-1973)
5-48
1. The Tet Offensive: Getting Back on the Track and Accelerating the Pacification Process
5-52
2. The Easter Offensive: A Setback for Both North and South
5-59
3. Measures of Success: Reaching for the Brass Ring
5-59
F. Vietnamization: An End to Americanization (1968-1975)
5-62
1. Definition and Purpose
5-62
2. Vietnamization as Viewed by the Vietnamese
5-64
G. Insights
5-68
1. Knowing the Enemy and Our Ally
5-68
2. Pacification
5-68
3. Vietnamization
5-72
H. Lessons
5-73

6. US WITHDRAWAL
A. Introduction
6-1
B. Considerations in Planning and Implementing US Withdrawal
6-3
1. Withdrawal Goals
6-4
2. Change in Objectives for the Field Commander
6-6
3. Concepts for Planning Withdrawal at the Field Command
6-7
C. Assessment of US Withdrawal
6-9
1. Influences Leading to Withdrawal
6-9
2. Consequences of US Withdrawal on the War
6-11
3. Consequences of US Withdrawal on International Relations
6-13
4. Consequences of the War on Asian Power Relationships
6-14
5. Consequences of US Withdrawal Planning
6-14
D. Summary Analysis and Insights
6-15
E. Lessons
6-18
Appendix
6-20

7. NEGOTIATIONS
A. Introduction
7-1
B. Phased Analysis of Negotiations
7-2
1. Phase 1: Post-WWII to 1961
7-2
2. Phase 2: 1961 to Mid-1968
7-13
3. Phase 3: The Paris Negotiations -- The Nixon and Kissinger Years
7-38
4. Insights
7-64
C. Lessons
7-68
Appendix
7-71

8. FOLLOW-ON EFFORT
A. Introduction
8-2
B. Post-Treaty/Post-Withdrawal: The Basis for and Nature of the US Commitment to South Vietnam
8-2
1. Commitments Based on Private Presidential Assurances
8-2
2. Commitments Based on the US Interpretation of the Paris Peace Accords
8-4
3. US Aid Commitments to South Vietnam: "Operation Enhance"/"Enhance Plus"
8-5
4. US Commitments To Aid and Defend South Vietnam: The US Congress and Its Effect on the US Follow-On Effort
8-6
C. Evaluation of the US Follow-On Effort: Problems, Effectiveness, and Results
8-16
D. Insights
8-20
E. Lessons
8-23
BIBLIOGRAPHY
B-1 to B-17

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