A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam
Volume VII
The Soldier

TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD
iii
PREFACE
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
xi
LIST OF FIGURES
xvii
LIST OF MAPS
xvii
LIST OF TABLES
xix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
EX-1 to EX-11

1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND, PERSONNEL POLICIES, AND THE INDIVIDUAL SOLDIER
Page
A. Introduction
1-1
B. Personnel Policies (Manpower Procurement)
1-3
1. Background
1-3
2. Political Parameters
1-7
3. The System in Operation
1-11
4. Voluntarism
1-20
5. Evaluation
1-22
C. The Soldier
1-26
1. Draftees and Enlistees
1-26
2. Officers
1-36
3. Relevance of Socio-Economic Background
1-41
D. Summary Analysis and Insights
1-46
E. Lessons
1-49

2. TRAINING AND INDOCTRINATION
A. Introduction
2-1
B. Influence of the Korean War
2-3
1. Expansion of the Training Base
2-3
2. Legacy of the Korean War
2-4
C. US Army Training Philosophy and Programs, 1954-1964
2-4
1. Impact of National Policy
2-4
2. The French Experience
2-5
3. The Special Forces
2-5
4. A New Era
2-6
5. Individual Training
2-6
6. Training for Staff and Advisors
2-7
7. The Military Assistance Training Advisory (MATA) Course
2-8
8. Training and Indoctrination 1954-1964 - A Summary
2-9
D. Training--On the Way In (1965-1968)
2-10
1. Snapshot of Training in 1965
2-11
2. In-Country Training
2-14
3. Major Changes in Training, 1965-68
2-15
4. Feedback to Training
2-17
5. The Advisors
2-17
6. Aviation Training
2-18
7. Training and Indoctrination 1965-1968 - A Summary
2-19
E. Training After Tet, 1968-73
2-22
1. Snapshot of Training in 1968
2-22
2. In-Country Training
2-23
3. Major Changes in Training, 1968-73
2-24
4. Training and Indoctrination 1969-1973
2-28
F. A Summary of Criticism on US Training for Vietnam
2-28
G. Summary Analysis and Insights
2-30
H. Lessons
2-31

3. LEADERSHIP AND ETHICS
A. Introduction
3-1
1. Leadership
3-2
2. Military Ethics
3-4
B. Factors Influencing the Decline in Military Leadership and Ethics
3-6
1. Wartime Expansion of the Army and the Decline in Officer and NCO Quality
3-6
2. Lack of Experience and Ticket Punching
3-12
3. Careerism (the new military ethic?)
3-16
4. Morale, Discipline and the Failure to Motivate Subordinates
3-21
C. Insights
3-28
D. Lessons
3-30

4. MORALE AND DISCIPLINE
A. Introduction
4-1
B. Evidence of a Decline in the Morale and Discipline of US Troops in Vietnam
4-3
1. Personal Observations
4-3
2. Evidence from the Inspector General
4-6
3. The Deserters and the Discharged
4-8
4. Fraggings and Combat Refusals
4-16
5. The Military Justice System
4-23
C. Causes of the Decline of Morale and Discipline Amongst US Troops
4-26
1. Ferment at Home
4-28
2. Careerism
4-31
3. Personnel Policies
4-34
4. The Type of War
4-39
5. The Drawdown
4-41
D. Insights
4-43
E. Lessons
4-44

5. RACE RELATIONS
A. Introduction
5-1
B. Institutional Racism
5-1
1. NAACP Study
5-2
2. Cook County Study
5-3
3. 1968 Civil Rights Group
5-4
4. The Military Justice System
5-10
C. Black-White Relations
5-12
D. Black-Australian Relations
5-14
E. The Army and Vietnamese Relations
5-14
F. Army Actions to Improve Race Relations
5-16
1. Positive Actions
5-16
2. Negative Actions
5-18
G. Insights
5-20
H. Lessons
5-20

6. DRUG ABUSE
A. Introduction and Overview
6-1
B. The Illicit Drug Traffic in Vietnam
6-2
1. Origins of the Drug Traffic
6-2
2. The Problem Grows
6-3
3. Drug Supply Routes and Traffickers
6-4
4. The Introduction of Drugs into Vietnam
6-6
C. Individual Drug Use in Vietnam
6-8
1. Drug Availability and Prevalence
6-8
2. Characteristics of the Drug User
6-13
3. Reasons for Using Drugs
6-17
D. Attitudes and Opinions About Drug Use in Vietnam
6-23
E. The US Drug Programs in Vietnam
6-28
1. Education, Orientation, Information Programs
6-29
2. Legal Enforcement Programs
6-30
3. The Nixon Message, June 17, 1971: Its Impact on Drug Abuse and Control Programs
6-34
4. Identification of Drug Users
6-35
5. Drug Abuse
6-40
6. The Amnesty Program
6-41
7. Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs
6-42
F. Conclusion: A Retrospective Look at the US Response to the Vietnam Drug Environment
6-44
G. Summary Analysis and Insights
6-47
H. Lessons
6-49

7. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
A. Introduction
7-1
1. Stress
7-1
2. Coping
7-2
B. Stress in Recent Wars
7-3
C. Factors Affecting Psychiatric Casualties in Vietnam
7-7
1. Group Cohesion and the One-Year Tour
7-7
2. Nature of the Vietnam War
7-10
3. Problems at Home--Problems 'In Country'
7-15
4. Training
7-16
5. Leadership
7-17
6. Age
7-18
7. Better Psychiatric and Medical Facilities
7-18
8. Interaction of Factors
7-21
D. The Average Psychiatric Casualty
7-22
E. Insights
7-24
F. Lessons
7-25
BIBLIOGRAPHY
B-1 to B-23

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